An I-shaped person is one who is a functional expert—their functional expertise being represented by the vertical stroke in the letter I. A T-shaped person is more. Much more—with the horizontal stroke of the T representing cross-functional awareness and understanding, in addition to the table stakes vertical stroke.
 
While it may seem obvious to some, it’s first important to take a minute to understand what exactly is meant when we say “open rate.” It may surprise some to learn that when an email service records that an email campaign was opened by one of the recipients, all it really means is that the 1x1 invisible pixel image that the email service automatically places in all email campaigns has been loaded. That’s how an email service “knows” that an email has been viewed/opened—i.e. when their server records that someone has accessed that 1x1 pixel image.
 
In web design and graphic/layout design, it is extremely common to design a layout that will later incorporate specific text. However, at the time of the wireframe and mockup, in the case of web design; or ad/brochure layout, in the case of graphic design, the exact text may not yet be available. In such cases however, if the approximate amount of text that will later occupy the wireframe, mockup, or layout is known, a designer may insert dummy copy for the time being. This dummy copy, also referred to as placeholder text, allows viewers to maintain their focus on the design/graphical elements and composition of the piece in question, instead of being distracted by the accuracy of the copy. This is where lorem ipsum comes in. Lorem ipsum is a block of text adapted from “De finibus bonorum et malorum,” a first century BC text by Marcus Tullius Cicero, who lived from January 3rd, 106 BC to December 7th, 43 BC. Cicero exerted a high degree of influence on the Latin language and was respected as not only a linguist, but also lawyer, orator and philosopher. Of such note was Cicero, that he was one of the subjects in one of Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus’ (aka Plutarch) “Parallel Lives.”