PHOENIX (Feb. 2, 2023) Zion & Zion, a full-service, global marketing agency, released part two of a study that explores the relative brand personalities of 45 top U.S. brands. In part two of the multi-part study, the Zion & Zion research team explored six dimensions of brand personality utilizing Freling, Crosno, and Henard’s (2011) brand personality appeal dimensions (BPA) and Haji’s (2014) negative brand personality dimensions (NegBP).

The Freling et al. BPA scales applied in this study measure the dimensions of Brand Personality Clarity and Brand Personality Originality with a total of nine traits. While the Aaker scale from our first study describes the character of each brand’s personality, the BPA approach investigates whether the personality, seen in totality, creates a clear and original brand image. Freling et al. suggest that is the overall appeal of the brand’s personality that influences target consumers’ purchase decisions and helps to sustain the endurance of a brand.

The Haji NegBP scale measures the dimensions of Egotistical, Boring, Crude and Socially Irresponsible with 15 traits describing the negative side of each brand’s personality. Brands can be seen in a negative light due to their actions or products.

“Combined, the BPA and the NegBP scales significantly extend our understanding of brands and their personalities,” said Zion & Zion CEO Aric Zion. “Aaker’s classic scale allows brands to measure their perceived personalities; however, it does not allow them to quantify the degree to which those personalities are perceived by audiences as clear and original.”

When comparing the two BPA dimensions to each other, the Zion & Zion research team found that the top brands score higher on Clarity than on Originality. This indicates that brands are clear about who they are but are often not seen as original. The application of NegBp revealed that brands scored highest (worst) on Egotistical, followed by Boring and Socially Irresponsible, while scoring lowest on Crude. This highlights that Crudeness is less of a perception problem than the other three negative dimensions.

View the full research report here: Part II: The Brand Personality Of 45 Major U.S. Brands.

Zion & Zion is an agency that provides global clients with an integrated, multidimensional set of services aimed at holistically understanding and improving customer experience. These services range across branding, market research, marketing technology, analytics, data visualization, creative, content, communications, UX/CX and digital media.

Zion & Zion’s clients include American Eagle Outfitters, Bally Sports, BD (Becton Dickinson), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Goodwill, McDonald’s, NASCAR, the Phoenix Suns, and Walmart. Learn more at or follow us on Twitter @ZIONandZION, Instagram @zionandzion, Facebook @ZionandZionAgency and LinkedIn Zion & Zion.